Atari 2600 FAQs

Atari 2600 FAQs

Last updated January 10th, 2003.
WARNING – many links may not actually work now.
An OLDER VERSION Feb 20th 1999
can be found on my old Atari page here:


What information is missing from the FAQ?
Where can I find the latest version of this FAQ?


What Usenet groups discuss or are relevant to the 2600?
Are there any mailing lists that discuss the 2600?
Where can I find cart lists?
What magazines cover the 2600?
What magazines covered the 2600 in the 80s?
What books cover the 2600?
Any there any videos that cover the 2600?
Where can I view Atari TV commercials?
Where can I view Atari print advertisements?
What is irc, #rgvc and how do I get on them?
What happened to Atari?
But I still see games with the Atari logo. What’s the story?
What scores were needed to earn an Activision patch?
What does the Atari symbol represent?
What does the word “atari” mean?
Where can I find Atari-like fonts?
What shows, events or gatherings cover the 2600?


Where can I find games for my 2600 or the consoles themselves?
Where can I download game instructions?
What are the best games for the 2600?
What are the most common and most rare games for the 2600?
What was Gameline and what games were available for it?
Which games use a lightgun?
Which 2600 games use the kid’s controllers/keypads?
Which 2600 games use paddles?
Which 2600 games use the driving controllers?
Which 2600 games have voice?
Which 2600 carts do not work on the 7800?
What is the Starpath CD and can I still get one?
Have any new games been released lately?
What are some cheats and Easter Eggs?
What programming resources are available?
Where can I get solutions to the Swordquest series?
Is there a list of 2600 game programmers?

Hardware (general)

What are the different 2600 models?
What types of clones exist?
What companies made 2600 adapters for their own systems?
Are there any emulators for the 2600?
What 2600 hardware was announced but never released?
How do I hook up my Atari to a TV? / I’ve hooked up my
system, but the picture is fuzzy.

How do I fix my paddles?
Where do I get my 2600 fixed?
How do I use an Atari joystick on a PC/Mac?
Which light guns work with the 2600?
What hardware peripherals exist for the 2600?
What are NTSC/PAL/SECAM and why should I care?
What is a TVboy and where can I get one?

Hardware (tech)

What are the specs for the 2600?
How large do 2600 games get?
Are there any published 2600 technical articles available?
Pinout information?
Power supply information?


How do I build a composite/audio/chroma/luma output
interface for the Atari 2600Jr/2600A?

How do I build a video driver for the 2600?
I hate the two mods above. Does anyone have anything better?
How do I convert Sega controllers to Atari pinout?
How do I convert a Sega Master System lightgun to Atari pinout?
How do I convert an NES controller to Atari pinout?
Is there a general site that contains all this conversion stuff?
What is an Atari Game Recorder and how do I build one?
How do I make a glove controller the 2600?
How can I convert a mouse into a paddle controller?

Q: What information is missing from the FAQ?

A: We are still looking for a high-quality
2600 composite mod tutorial. Must include directions for beginners, and include
actual pictures of hardware and modifications.

Q: Where can I find the latest version of this FAQ?

A: The FAQ is maintained in html form and is amended as updates come in.

Q: What Usenet groups discuss
or are relevant to the 2600?

A: There are several groups:


There are some others, but they are very low traffic.

Q: Are there any mailing lists that discuss the 2600?


The Stella mailing list (also know as the
the Atari 2600 Programming list) is for Atari 2600 programmers and thos wishing to learn. To subscribe,
visit the Stella Mailing List. Also, here are the stella list archives
as well as the stella archive excavation, which culls many of the interesting bits.

Q: Where can I find cartridge lists?


AtariAge maintains a  set of cart lists on their web site in a searchable, sortable
database. These lists are updated frequently.

Dean Dierschow ( maintains game
for several systems including the 2600/7800. The relevant
files are at2600.lst, at5200.lst, and at7800.lst. These lists are a good
starting point for the new or general game collector; alas, these files
have not been updated since Oct 94.

Digital Press markets its Classic Video
Games Collector’s Guide
which covers the Atari 2600 and many
other classic and neo-classic systems. See their web site for the latest edition
availability and pricing.

For those with UK interests, Steve Rich and
Chris Hind are the authors of the
Atari VCS/2600 UK Release List

GameReset also maintains lists and
images of European, Brazilian, and other cartridges.

Q: What magazines cover the 2600?

A: The 2600 Connection is a bi-monthly Atari 2600 resource. This fanzine, published by Russ
Perry Jr., includes news, game reviews,
interviews, and entertaining anecdotes. Rare and collectible games are
frequently discussed. Classified ads in the Connection are relevant to
all Atari game machines. Visit the 2600 Connection
Home Page
for more information.

Q: What magazines covered the 2600 in the 80s?


  • Atari
  • Blip
  • Electronic Fun w/ Computers and Games
  • Electronic Games
  • Joystik
    (Many complete issues are at stormaster
    and indexed at neonghost.
  • TV Gamer
    (not to be confused with the non-classic, currently
    publishing Japanese mag)
  • Video & Arcade Games (2 issues, Spring and Fall 83)
  • Video Games
  • Video Games Player (later Computer Games)
  • Videogaming Illustrated
  • VidiotQ: What books cover the 2600?A: Leonard Herman (
    publishes Phoenix: the Fall & Rise of Home Videogames. It covers
    the home video game industry in detail from the pre-classic days, through
    the early 80s and up to 1993. See the Rolenta
    home page for more information.Another book is Zap! : the Rise and Fall of Atari by Scott
    Cohen.Steven L. Kent wrote a book entitled First Quarter: The 25-Year History of
    Video Games
    , that has subsequently been released as The Ultimate History of
    Video Games
    . It covers quite a bit of history and includes some photos.Halcyon Days: Interviews with Classic Computer and Video Game Programmers
    is an electronic book (html format) available from Dadgum
    . A review of the book and several snippets from it
    can be found in Issue #42 of the 2600 Connection. According to the review,
    only six of the twenty-eight programmers interviewed worked on the 2600,
    so much information contained in the book is not directly relevant to
    the 2600 world.

    Supercade: A Visual History of the Videogame Age 1971-1984
    by Van Burnham covers the history of videogames in a full-color hardback book.
    See the Supercade
    web page
    for more information.

    For comprehensive list of related material, see the Classic
    Video Game Literature List
    , maintained by Lee K. Seitz.

    Q: Are there any videos that cover the 2600?

    A: Once Upon Atari is a four part series exploring the early
    days of Atari. Produced by Howard Scott Warshaw (, the
    series is a first hand look at Atari from the people who worked there.

    Stella at 20: An Atari 2600 Retrospective is a series of documentaries
    from Glenn Saunders ( Both Volume
    1, Tales of Stella and Atari
    and Volume
    2, The Game Designers or One Person, One Game
    are around
    90 minutes in length and are available for $25 each or $40 for both +
    shipping. If you buy both videos, you can add the Stella Gets a New Brain
    CD for just $10 more. See the ordering
    for more information.

    Two videos, one documenting the 1998 World of Atari show and one documenting
    the 1999 Classic Gaming Expo are available from Mark Santora (
    for $25 + $4 shipping each or $50 (shipping included) for both tapes.
    Contact him directly to order or to inquire about international orders
    or PAL format tapes.

    Q: Where can I view Atari TV commercials?

    A:The Commercial Archive site is the home to many of the same bits, in both
    Quicktime and Realplayer formats.

    Q: Where can I view Atari print advertisements?

    A: Tom Zjaba (
    maintains a video game ad site that contains scans from various magazines and
    comic books.

    Q: What is irc, #rgvc and how do I get on them?

    A: irc is Internet Relay Chat,
    a global realtime chat network. #rgvc is the channel.
    You can download an IRC client from,
    and you will also find some general information and instructions there.

    The Atari Gaming Headquarters site is the home of the #rgvc
    home page
    , which contains tips on irc etiquette, the #rgvc
    FAQ and a list of web pages and mail addresses of the regulars.

    Q: What happened to Atari?

    A: The Atari that everyone knew,
    loved and hated is gone. On July 30, 1996, Atari merged with disk drive
    maker JTS with more of whimper than a bang. Don Thomas (
    has written a  short, insightful bit about the merger and the history leading
    up to it that asks more questions than it answers.

    The story doesn’t end there, however. On Feb 23, 1998, JTS sold
    substantially all of the assets of the Company’s Atari Division, consisting
    primarily of Atari home computer games and the intellectual property rights
    and license agreements associated with such games (the “Atari Assets”),
    to HIACXI, Corp. (“HIAC”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hasbro Interactive,
    Inc., for $5,000,000 in cash.
    Read the entire 8-K
    that was submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission
    regarding this transaction.

    And the story continues. On Dec 6, 2000, Hasbro entered into a “long-term
    licensing agreement” with Infogrames, wherein the French company will
    acquire 100% of Hasbro Interactive (which includes the Atari bits). You
    can read all about it in the Press

    Q: But I still see games with the Atari logo. What’s the story?

    A: In 1984, Warner Communications
    sold off the home (console) and consumer electronics (computer) divisions
    to the Tramiel family. These divisions became Atari Corp., which later
    merged with JTS and whose assets were part of Hasbro Interactive and are
    now part of Infogrames. The update of Centipede
    came (in small part) from the ashes of Atari Corp. Interestingly, Hasbro
    has resurrected the Atari name and logo; many of their recent classic
    releases (Atari Arcade Hits 2, for example) appear under the Atari name.

    You may have also seen the Atari logo for years in the arcades under
    the Time-Warner Interactive label (Atari Games). In 1996, TW sold Atari
    Games to WMS Industries (the Williams people), who turned around and spun
    off its Midway division (announced in 1997, completed (?) in 1998). Atari
    is now a subsidiary of Midway Games and was responsible
    for games such as Gauntlet Legends and Rush the Rock. You might also see
    the Atari logo for home conversions of these (and other) games under the
    Midway Home Entertainment label. In spite of this corporate shuffling,
    a few of the Atari veterans are still there including (as of Summer 99)
    Ed Logg, whose credits include the arcade versions of Centipede and Millipede
    as well as 2600 Othello.

    The March 2000 Electronic Gaming Monthly reports that Midway has abandoned
    the Atari name, renaming Atari Games as Midway Games West. This is probably
    the end of the line for the Atari Games name.

    Q: What scores were needed to earn an Activision patch?

    A: AtariAge maintains an
    Activision Patch Gallery
    . This page has pictures of the patches as well
    as the scores needed to earn them.

    Q: What does the Atari symbol represent?


    The Atari symbol was designed by George Opperman in 1972. Pong
    was very big then, and the big letter A represented two opposing video
    game players with the center of the Pong court in the middle.

    Q: What does the word “atari” mean?

    A: The word atari comes from
    the game of Go, perhaps the world oldest board game. Several early 80’s
    magazine references define atari as “you are about to be engulfed,” but
    the FAQ denotes that word in this way:

    atari : A group of stones is in atari if it has only one liberty left.

    Q: Where can I find Atari-like fonts?

    has made available an Atari-like font (the Atarian
    System v. 1.0) for both Windows
    and the Mac.

    Q: What shows, events or gatherings cover the 2600?


    • Britmeet,
      is an annual event held in England. The web page has all the details, as well as info and pictures
      from previous conventions.
    • Eurocon is an annual event held in Europe. See the web page for the latest location and other info.

    Q: Where can I find games for my 2600 or the console itself?

    A: Auction web sites seem to
    have taken over as the primary method of buying (and selling) on the net.
    Here are a few:

    There are still several sources for new game cartridges. A few are:

    Other sources for both new games, used games and consoles include:

    • Thrift Stores
    • Flea Markets
    • & ads
    • web pages of many collectors
    • 2600 Connection classified ads
    • newspaper classified ads

    Q: Where can I download game instructions?

    A: AtariAge maintains an
    manual archive
    with most of the manuals for the 2600.

    Q: What are the best games for the 2600?

    A: This can be a subjective matter,
    of course, but here are some of the most popular:

    River Raid
    Yars Revenge
    Haunted House
    Demon Attack

    Q: What are the most common and most rare games for the 2600?

    A: Commonality and rarity of
    a game depends upon many things, including geographical location, cart
    and label condition, label variation and personal experience. AtariAge
    provides an on-line rarity guide that includes label varitiations, and The Digital
    Press Collectors Guide
    provides a rarity index and price guide in
    their printed book.

    Q: What was Gameline?

    A: Gameline was a service offered
    by Control Video Corporation that admitted the downloading of games to
    the the 2600 over regular phone lines. The Gameline used a variable 800-2000
    baud modem, according to Kevin Horton’s no-longer-there Gameline Page.
    The Gameline Master Module originally sold for $49.95 and there was a
    one-time membership fee of $15. Charges were about $.10 a game or $1 for
    up to an hour of play. Contest games were $1 and there was a
    $.50 charge to enter a score. On your birthday, not only were you given
    free play for a day, but you also received a Happy Birthday screen, complete
    with cake, candles and music.

    While the service did not last very long, the charred ashes of the service
    begat what is now AOL.

    Q: Which games use a lightgun?


    • Sentinel
    • Shooting Arcade (prototype only)

    Q: Which 2600 games use the kid’s controllers/keypads


    • A Game of Concentration (Hunt & Score, Memory Match)
    • Alpha Beam with Ernie
    • BASIC Programming
    • Big Bird’s Egg Catch
    • Brain Games
    • Codebreaker
    • Cookie Monster Munch
    • Grover’s Music Maker (prototype)
    • MagiCard
    • Oscar’s Trash Race
    • Star Raiders

    Q: Which 2600 games use paddles?


    • Astroblast (joystick ok too)
    • Bachelor Party
    • Backgammon
    • Beat Em’ & Eat Em
    • Blackjack
    • Breakout (Breakaway IV)
    • Bugs
    • Bumper Bash
    • Canyon Bomber
    • Casino (Poker Plus)
    • Circus Atari (circus)
    • Demons to Diamonds
    • Eggomania
    • Encounter at L-5
    • Fireball
    • Guardian
    • Kaboom!
    • Music Machine
    • Night Driver
    • Party Mix
    • Picnic
    • Piece O Cake
    • Solar Storm
    • Star Wars: Jedi Arena
    • Steeplechase
    • Street Racer (Speedway II)
    • Super Breakout
    • Tac-Scan
    • Video Olympics (Pong Sports)
    • Warlords
    • Warplock

    Q: Which 2600 games use the driving controllers?


    • Indy 500 and
    • Stell-A-Sketch (homebrew program)

    Q: Which 2600 games have voice?


    • Quadrun
    • Open Sesame (PAL game)
    • Berzerk: Voice Enhanced (hacked version of Berzerk)

    Q: What 2600 carts do not work on the 7800?

    A: There are known incompatibilities
    with some NTSC versions of the 7800 (PAL 7800s seem to be unaffected).
    Games that may not work include Robot Tank, Decathlon, Space Shuttle,
    Time Pilot, Kool-Aid Man and the Supercharger. 7800s manufactured in 1984 seem to be
    fully compatible, whereas those manufactured later have inconsistent incompatibilities.

    Here is a compatibility chart:

    Test decks:
                Serial #                           Board part#
    Deck#        72R4BR-  Country  Expansion port     CO25233-  Board Date
    -----  -------------  -------  --------------  -----------  ----------
      1    AT  8 5037836   Taiwan    Full port       001 REV A       84-25
      2    A1 76 5904610   Taiwan    Full port       002 REV A       87-17
      3    A1 77 5951337   Taiwan    Hole/no pins    002 REV A       87-17
      4    A3 87 5139813   Taiwan    No port         002 REV B       88-28
      5    A3 07 5298641   China     No port         002 REV B       88-30

    Board part number/revision is taken from the underside of the board,
    just above the cart slot. The full number always begins with “CO25233.”
    The boards’ top side has a different part number, “CO25234,” but no revision
    level is given. Board dates are also taken from the underside of the board,
    near the Atari logo. I changed the notation a bit to make sorting by date
    easier. They’re really written like “2584” instead of “84-25,” which would
    indicate the twenty-fifth week of 1984.

    The carts tested were:

    • Decathlon (2 different carts)
    • Robot Tank (3)
    • Space Shuttle (5)
    • Supercharger (2)
    • 7800 Food Fight
    Results:  "Yes"  = cart works fine.
              "No"   = cart doesn't do a thing.
              "Roll" = cart works, but picture rolls.
              "Lock" = cart plays for a while, then locks up the system.
                    Deck #
         Cart          1        2        3        4        5
                    ------   ------   ------   ------   ------
        Decathlon 1    Yes       No       No      Yes      Yes
                  2    Yes       No       No      Yes      Yes
       Robot Tank 1    Yes     Roll     Roll     Roll     Roll
                  2    Yes      Yes     Roll     Roll      Yes
                  3    Yes      Yes     Roll     Roll      Yes
    Space Shuttle 1    Yes      Yes      Yes      Yes      Yes
                  2    Yes      Yes      Yes      Yes      Yes
                  3    Yes     Roll     Roll     Roll      Yes
                  4    Yes     Roll     Roll     Roll      Yes
                  5    Yes      Yes      Yes      Yes      Yes
     Supercharger 1    Yes       No       No       No       No
                  2    Yes       No       No       No       No
         Food Fight    Yes      Yes     Lock     Lock      Yes
    • Whether or not a given cart works on a given deck depends on both
      cart and deck. There’s no real consistency among different carts of
      the same title.
    • It looks like the Supercharger is the proof test of whether a given
      deck will be fully compatible with any 2600 cart.
    • The conventional wisdom saying that a deck with the expansion port
      will work with anything is false. Presence or absence of the port is
      not a reliable indicator of compatibility with all 2600 carts.
    • Likewise, the deck’s geographical origin is not a reliable indicator.
      The one manufactured in China (#5) has fewer compatibility problems
      than the others, but it still has some.
    • The oldest deck (#1) performed flawlessly in all tests. This is probably
      from the earliest production run, and was either sold in one of the
      limited test-markets or was warehoused until Atari Corp realized the
      home video game market was still viable.

    IMHO, the manufacturing standards of deck #1 are better than the others.
    All the major chips inside are all socketed instead of being soldered
    directly to the board. Some of the other decks also have had some minor
    factory patchwork performed. They occasionally have resistors bridging
    points where they were clearly not originally intended to be, i.e. soldered
    directly to a chip pin or placed on the underside of the board.

    Wondering if that 7800 deck sitting in the thrift store could be one
    of the fully-compatible ones? There are some very minor externally visible
    differences between my deck #1 and the others. I can’t conclusively say
    these are 100% reliable indicators, but they are conspicuously different.

    • The labels on the undersides of decks 2-5 have a box drawn around
      the serial number. Deck #1 has no box drawn.
    • The serial number itself on deck #1 is different from the others.
      The “72R4BR” prefix is very much smaller than the rest of the number.
      “AT85037836” is one continuous string of black characters with no spaces,
      while on deck #2 (#3-5 are similar), “A1 76 5904610” does have the spaces,
      and the “76” is stamped in blue.
    • The cart contacts of deck #1 have a definite copper color, while
      the contacts of the others have a silvery appearance.

    Some reports are that Superchargers may be permanently
    damaged when used on the 7800. Try Robot Tank first
    and then proceed only if that cart works.

    Q: What is the Starpath CD and can I still get one?

    A: The Starpath Supercharger
    Game Collection on CD
    , or Stella Gets a New Brain was a
    non-profit, long-awaited labor of love from the CyberPuNKs (Russ Perry
    Jr., Glenn Saunders, Jim Nitchals and Dan Skelton). This CD not only contains
    NTSC and PAL versions of most of the Supercharger games (PAL Survival
    Island is missing), but also development tools, a collection of Supercharger
    and Vectrex material, and several surprises (including SoundX and the UR Polo from Carol Shaw).

    The Starpath CD is now sold out. You will have to look on the secondary market
    to get one.

    Two notes on the new Stella cd: first, the makeup of the disk is different.
    Some things on the first disk were not included (e.g. the vectrex stuff,
    Polo) while other things were added. Second, you can purchase the “Stella
    Super Pack” which includes the Stella cd and volumes 1 and 2 of the Stella
    at 20 videos for only $50 (+ shipping and tax, if applicable).

    For general information about the supercharger, see the supercharger
    FAQ / Cyberpunks FAQ
    which contains some interesting information
    about the Starpath company, the supercharger, and the Cyberpunks.

    Q: Have any new games been released lately?

    A: Over the past couple of years,
    many new games have been developed for the Atari 2600. Many of these can either be
    downloaded at AtariAge, or purchased on cartridge in the AtariAge store. Here is a partial list:


    • Alfred Challenge – platformer
    • Allia Quest – space shooter
    • Crazy Valet – puzzle game
    • Cubis – Tetris clone
    • Dark Mage – text adventure
    • Edtris – Tetris clons
    • INV – updated Space Invaders
    • Marble Craze
    • Merlins’s Walls – 3D maze game
    • Mondo Pong – pong update
    • Okie Dokie – puzzle game
    • Oystron – space shooter
    • Pesco – maze game
    • Pressure Guage – reaction game
    • Qb – puzzle game
    • SCSIcide – action game
    • Sea Battle – naval warfare (old prototype, newly released Intellivision port)
    • SoundX – sound tool
    • Space Instigators
    • Stell-a-Sketch – Etch-a-Sketch clone
    • Swordfight – fighting game (old prototype, newly released)
    • This Planet Sucks – rescue-action game
    • Thrust – lunar lander style game
    • Vault Assault – action game
    • Video Simon – based on the handheld game
    • Video Time Machine – 24 hour animated clock
    • Warring Worms
    • Yahtzee! – based on the board game

    Q: Where can I find a list of cheats and Easter Eggs?

    A: Scott Stilphen maintains a list of Easter Eggs along with some screenshots at the DP
    Easter Egg

    Q: What programming resources are available?


    See Dan
    Boris’ VCS page

    A fairly comprehensive page is Nick
    Bensema’s 2600 Programming Page
    , complete with gobs of source
    examples and programming tools.

    Bob Colbert ( provides many development
    tools for the Supercharger
    on his home page. These tools
    are different than those found on the Supercharger CD.

    Eckhard Stolberg’s ( VCS
    Workshop Page
    also contains many tools and source code files.
    Of particular interest is his Devkit
    which contains instructions on how to modify a 7800 such that it may be
    used as a development system and cart reader for 2600 and 7800 games.

    Mac PowerPC users might wish to mosey on over to the Mactari
    site, which houses 2600 development tools for the Mac.

    See the Stella entry in the mailing list section. The stella
    mailing list is dedicated to 2600 programming.


    AtariAge has an active Programming Message Board with complete archives.

  • Q: Where can I get solutions to the Swordquest series?A: Walton C. Gibson (
    maintains the SwordQuest
    Comic Book Archive
    which contains both the comics and the
    solutions.Q: Is there a list of 2600 game programmers?James Hague ( maintains The
    Giant List of Classic Game Programmers
    . The list is both
    extensive and not limited to 2600 programmers, so it may take a while
    to find 2600-specific information. AtariAge
    also has programmer information included in their software database.

    Q: What are the different 2600 models?


    This list is incomplete:

    2600 models

    Atari VCS CX2600 – Original model. Woodgrain and black plastic enclosure.
    Light and heavy weighted plastic. Six silver switches across the upper
    front panel. Bundled accessories included two CX40 joysticks, one CX30
    paddle controller, AC adapter, TV switch and a CX2601 Combat game cart.
    Sample wording on label on bottom of unit:

    Mfd. by Atari, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA.  Serial # 048181.
    Mfd. by Atari-Wong Ltd. in Hong Kong.  Serial # 568213514.
    Manufactured for Atari Inc. by TRU Electronic Components Company in Taiwan.
    Model NO: CX-2600 Serial # 81281713"

    Sears Tele-Games Video Arcade I – Same as above except external cosmetic
    differences (the “difficulty” switches are labeled “skill level”, the
    switch panel is silver instead of black, and the woodgrain pattern is
    different.) Sample wording:

    Mfd. for Atari Inc. by Dimerco Electronics in Taiwan for sale to
    Sears, Roebuck, and Co.  Serial # 82077230.

    Atari VCS 2600A – Revised model. Externally it is nearly identical to
    the original, except there are four silver switches across the upper front
    panel instead of six. The difficulty switches were moved to the rear of
    the unit. Internally, the motherboard is a simplified one-piece design.
    Sample wording:

    Mfd. for Atari, Inc. by TRW Electronic Components Co. in Taiwan.
    Serial # 811510200.
    Mfd. for Atari, Inc. by Atari Taiwan Mfing. Corp. in Taiwan.
    Serial # 827030354.

    Sears Tele-Games Video Arcade I(A) – Same as above except for external
    cosmetic differences. Sample wording:

    Mfd. for Atari Inc. by Dimerco Electronics in Taiwan for sale to
    Sears, Roebuck, and Co.  Serial # 82299647.

    Atari VCS 2600A (black) – Second revised model. Externally it is nearly
    identical to the 2600A, except the enclosure has a more modern looking
    “black out” treatment. The areas of woodgrain on the original models are
    now simply black plastic. Internally, the motherboard is a slight revision
    of the 2600A. Sample wording:

    Mfd. for Atari, Inc. by Atari Taiwan Mfing. Corp. in Taiwan.
    Serial # AT831150153.
    Manufactured for Atari Inc. by Atari Ireland, Ltd in Ireland. Model No CX-2600 AP.
    Serial 508 AI 0020153

    Sears Tele-Games Video Arcade II – Entirely new model of the 2600 designed
    exclusively for Sears. Black wedge-shaped enclosure, with push button
    switches and LEDs on top panel. Essentially an Atari 7800 shell. Four
    joystick connectors on lower front panel with rocker switch. Internally
    very different from other 2600 models, but still uses the same basic chipset.
    Bundled accessories include two combination joystick/paddle controllers,
    AC adapter, TV switch and a Space Invaders game cart. Sample wording:

    Sears, Inc. (Atari, Inc.) Serial # SV 392 005539.

    Atari 2800 — same as Sears Tele-Games Video Arcade II but with Atari
    label. Released only in Japan. Very rare.

    Atari 2600 “Jr.” – Third revised model. It is slightly larger than a
    VHS video tape case. Some versions have “Jr” stamped onto the bottom sticker.
    Large black buttons. Power and b/w switches slide, while Reset and Game
    Select are push buttons. Jet black with large metallic silver strip running
    lengthwise across the front with “Atari 2600” on it. Marketed as the “Under
    50 bux, the fun is back!” machine. Bundled accessories include one joystick,
    AC adapter, TV switch box, and RCA connecting cable. Box is designed as
    a carrying case with handle and a white section which reads: “This Atari
    2600 belongs to:”. No bundled cart. The unit came in either a maroon or
    silver box. Sample wording:

             Atari Logo                           Atari 2600
             FCC ID: EBA72R2600
             MADE IN TAIWAN
             [FCC wording deleted]
                             S.N. A1 81 1494278
             [Atari logo embossed in plastic] [made in taiwan in plastic]
             MODEL NO. CX-2600 JR.
             4, 122, 422 OTHER PATENTS, AND
             PATENTS PENDING
                   S.N.|A1 873 412187 |
             [ATARI & FUJI LOGO]      MADE IN TAIWAN

    Atari 2600 “Jr.” – same as above except silver plate has a larger rainbow
    strip without an embossed border.

    Kevin Dempsey ( displays an all-black
    2600 Jr. on his web site. This one doesn’t seem to be listed
    in JerryG’s clones and changers link below.

    A few miscellaneous notes:
    All 6 switch Ataris had a large shield casing. There were at least two
    6-switch versions:

    (6-1) The original. The entire bottom half of the console was made of
    quarter inch thick plastic (~6mm)! Combined with the thick aluminum RF
    casing, this is the heaviest 2600 ever made. Also, this 2600 has no 2/3
    channel select switch. There is a channel select hole in the case and
    it’s marked Channel A/B, but there’s no switch inside on the PCB. These
    consoles came with “01 combat”. (1977 models only)

    (6-2) The lighter 2600. No armor plating. Bottom half of console is
    made of thin plastic, like the 4 switch models. Channel switch now present.
    Thick RF shield still present. Plain ol’ “combat” included.

    The were also minor variations on 4 front switch, woodgrain panel models.
    On some, the difficulty switches are marked “Expert/Novice” (or was it
    “Advanced/Beginner”?) and others are marked only as “A/B”.

    Finally, a hodge-podge of facts that don’t fit anywhere else:

    • Rumors persist that the pictures on the packaging varied.
    • Both Pac-Man (see Atari Age V2 #4) and Centipede were pack-in carts.
    • 2600s were made in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Sunnyvale, Ireland and China.

    Q: What types of clones exist?

    A: Probably the most famous is
    the Gemini, an inexpensive clone 2600 made by Coleco. It sports an all
    black, box-shaped enclosure with six small slide switches (say that fast)
    on top of front panel. On the back panel, there is an RF modulator port
    and a power adapter port. Two joystick ports and difficult switches live
    on the front panel. Bundled bits include two dual-joystick/paddle controllers,
    a 9volt/500ma DC adapter, an RF cable, a TV switch and Donkey Kong and
    Mouse Trap carts. Sample wording:

    Coleco Gemini VGS - Coleco Ind., Inc., Serial # AG0145189.

    There is also the Columbia Home Arcade, which is essentially a rebadged Coleco Gemini.

    Q: What companies made 2600 adapters for their own systems?

    A: ColecoVision Expansion Module
    #1 – Black, 5″ x 10″, 1 3/4″ high in front, sloping to 2 3/4″ in back.

                   _____      a = expansion connector to ColecoVision
            ______|__a__|__   b = 2600 cart slot
            |      _____   |  c = color/b+w slide switch
            |     |__b__|  |  l = left difficulty slide switch
            |.........     |  r = right difficulty slide switch
            | clr gr :     |  g = game select push button
            |________:_____|  r = reset button
                       ^ ^  <---- joystick ports

    Chips inside are: “COLECO 73192 E4002” (TIA clone?), SY6507, SY6532.
    Curiously, there is an empty space for a 14 pin chip and assorted resistors
    and capacitors on the right side of the circuit board. The space for a
    “Y1” indicates that this was probably intended to be a clock generator.
    (Could this board also be intended for standalone use, such as in the
    VGS?) There is also an adjustment hole on the bottom that turns a potentiometer
    [probably color control]. The reset button on the main ColecoVision console
    acts as a hard reset for the expansion module. The connection to the ColecoVision
    unit isn’t very physically stable, at least not on carpet, resulting in
    flaky performance. Sample wording:

            "ColecoVision [tm]
             Model No. 2405
             Coleco Industries, Inc., Amsterdam, NY 12010
             Serial # A0065820         For service help call:
             F.C.C. ID# BNV8432405     1+800+842-1225
             Coleco Industries, Inc.   (Nationwide)
             Made in U.S.A.            Printed in U.S.A. 74859A"

    Intellivision System Changer – Made by Mattel, copyright 1983. White,
    roughly about 5-6″ square and 2″ high, with a piece sticking out of the
    left side that fits into the Intellivision cartridge slot.

                ___________ <-Top face.
                |  _____  |
              __| [__a__] |  a == Atari cartridge slot  b == insert into Inty II
             | b          |  c == Game Reset (square button)
             |__   cdefg  |  d, f == left and right difficulty (toggle switches)
                |_________|  e == Color/B+W toggle switch

    Front face had two standard joystick ports. Known to work with virtually
    all 2600 carts except those that don’t work with other adapters (i.e.
    those like Space Shuttle and Starmaster that use standard 2600 hardware
    functions). Does not work with the “original” (2609) Intellivision Master
    Component without factory modification. Sample wording:

    (one white label and one orange label) "Model No. 4610  FCC ID: BSU9RD4610
    Serial No. 003255

    Commodore VIC-20/2600 game adapter – Rumored to exist. Was advertised
    by Protecto in mail
    order ads in during the 1983 time frame. Plugged into VIC
    expansion connector and provided 2600 software emulation. Original price,
    emulation quality, and reliability all unknown.

    The September 1983 issue of Electronic Games (page 41) shows an advertisement
    for Cardapter,
    a 2600 cart adapter for the Vic-20. The distributor was Cardco, Inc. in
    the US, LSI Distributors Ltd in W est Canada, Hobby Craft Canada in East
    Canada, and Audiogenic in Europe. Additional information on this bit would
    be interesting.

    JerryG ( maintains a list of both 2600
    clones and changers

    Q: Are there any emulators for the 2600?

    Q: What 2600 hardware was announced, but never released?

    A: The short answer is quite
    a bit
    . Here are some examples:

    • 2600 keyboard by Atari, called the Graduate or My First Computer.
      It was designed by Peripheral Visions Inc.
    • 2600 voice command system
    • a headband controller, Mindlink
    • Atari
    • Atari 2700 – Remote control joystick/paddles, touch sensitive console
    • Atari 3600 – 10-bit system, made it to prototype stage.
    • Amiga Power Module for 2600. Similar to the Supercharger, it had
      dialup capability (to play against others). Also, some 3D games were
      planned for it as well.
    • U.S. Games Joystick, similar to Coleco Super Action Controller (EF
      May 83, p. 91)
    • much, much more. Pictures of prototypes and the stories behind them
      for all three systems can be found at the Atari

    Q: How do I hook up my Atari to a TV?


    You will need either a manual switchbox or an RCA > Coaxial video adapter. This will allow you to connect the system to any cable-ready TV.

    One way to hook up the Atari is:

    • Remove cable input from back of TV
    • Take A+B, connect I to back of TV
    • Run RF cable from Atari to C
    • Set my TV to channel 3
    • Put Switch on Game Setting
    • Turn on Atari

    If your picture is fuzzy, the most probable cause is that you are using
    an automatic RF switch (i.e. one that does not physically have to be switched
    between the “TV” and “game” position). Most (all?) systems starting with
    the NES use automatic RF switches. These will not work for the 2600/7800,
    as the signal is not strong enough to trigger the switch completely. A
    manual RF switch, available at any Radio Shack or equivalent, is the way
    to happiness. Another possible cause is that the TV is set to channel
    3 but the Atari is set to channel 4 or vice versa.

    A thick (well-shielded)
    RCA cable may also improve picture quality.

    Q: How do I fix my paddles?

    A: Dirty paddles are a cause
    of great frustration. To clean them, buy a can of Cleaner/Degreaser (available
    at Radio Shack, catalog #64-4422), open up the paddles and spray directly
    into the pot area. Close them up, give them a few twists and
    they should be good as new. Silicon spray, WD40 and TV tuner can also
    be used, although there are warnings about possible gumming with WD40,
    and possible plastic rot with TV tuner.

    Q: Where do I get my 2600 fixed?

    A: In general, it is usually
    more cost effective to buy another console.

    Q: Do Bally Astrocade joysticks work on the 2600?

    A: No. Even though they use the
    standard 9-pin connector, the pinouts are different. However, the Bally/Astrocade
    documents the proper rewiring scheme to allow them to
    work on the 2600.

    Q: How do I use an Atari joystick on a PC/Mac?

    A: Here are links to a few hardware
    hacks for the PC:

    There is also the PC
    that allows two 9-pin joysticks to be connected
    to your PC for gobs of MAME (or other emulator) goodness. The hardware
    devices are hand made, so see the web page for availability, price and
    the like.

    On the Mac side, there is the JoyPort ADB and JoyPort USB from,
    which support not only 9-pin controllers, but also PC, Playstation and
    N64 controllers.

    Q: Which light guns work with the 2600?

    A: There is no light gun made
    specifically for either system. However, Atari’s light gun (model number
    XG-1) that came with the XE-Game-System works well. Additionally, Best
    Electronics sells the Best Lightgun which supposedly works better than
    Atari’s own. (comments?) Also, see the entry for rewiring a Sega lightgun
    elsewhere in the FAQ.

    Q: What hardware peripherals exist for the 2600?

    A: Note: This list is by no means

    2600 peripherals

    • Compumate – 42 key touchpad computer add on from Spectravideo. Adds
      16K ROM, 2K RAM, and has BASIC. Looks like a small keyboard attached
      to a cartridge, which is in turn connected to the joystick ports. Originally
      sold for $79.99
    • Copy Cart – from Vidco, allowed transfer of a game onto a blank cartridge.
      Battery powered, not all games can be copied because of memory limitations.
    • CVC GameLine – Play games via modem. See Gameline entry above.
    • Game Selex – from Starplex, allows 9 cartridges to be plugged in
      at once; turn a dial to choose the game.
    • Kid Vid Control – Coleco cassette recorder and cartridge interface.
      Additional wire connects recorder to joystick port. Voices and songs
      tell player what to do on screen. Tape shuts off automatically to wait
      for player input. 3 tapes per game, only games were Berenstain Bears
      and Smurfs Save the Day.
    • Personal Game Programmer – By Answer, similar to Game Genie.
    • ROM Scanner – from Marjac, allows 10 cartridges to be plugged in,
      press a button to choose game.
    • Starpath Supercharger – Large cartridge that plugged into the 2600
      slot. It has a cable with standard 1/8″ jack for plugging into tape
      recorders. Games were distributed on cassette tape. The unit itself
      contains 6K RAM and 2K ROM. ROM is in top 2K and RAM is banked in lower
    • Video Game Brain – from RGA International Limited. A multiple cartridge
      adapter that holds six games to play, and contains 2 dummy slots for
      additional cart storage. You select the game you want to play by pushing
      a button in front of that cartridge.
    • Videoplexer by Compro was an 8 cart bankswitcher. It had a smoke
      brown plexiglass hood and 8 sensor touch buttons on the front panel.
      The manual claimed to Reduce the wear on your expensive system
      and cartridges.
    • Unimex SP280 by Unimex. A game duplicator which copied games to a
      EPROM cart. Available EPROM carts were 2K and 4K; 8K (and perhaps 16K)
      EPROMs were announced, but none have been seen. The manual stated that
      the carts could be erased by opening them and placing the EPROM under
      a tanning lamp (Unimex also offered erasing services for a nominal fee).
    • A fantastic number of different controllers. AtariAge maintains a list of
      and game-specific controllers

    Q: What are NTSC/PAL/SECAM and why should I care?

    A: NTSC (National Television
    Standards Committee), PAL (Phase Alternating Lines) and SECAM (SEquentiel
    Couleur Avec Memoire) are different worldwide, generally incompatible
    television standards. Some short, not completely accurate information

    what               where                      freq/frames/scan lines
    ----               -----                      ----------------------
    NTSC               US/Japan                         60hz/30/525
    PAL                Europe                           50hz/25/625
    SECAM              France & many others             50hz/25/625

    For detailed and accurate (but muddled) information, see the Worldwide
    TV standards page
    . Why is this information important? Different
    carts will exhibit different characteristics based on what kind of TV and
    console are used. For example, a PAL cart on an NTSC console and TV will
    roll the screen and exhibit a strange color scheme. An adjustable vertical
    hold is a must in these situations. The
    console compatibility FAQ
    details much of this information
    for the Atari 2600/7800 and other consoles as well.

    Q: What is a TV Boy and where can I get one?

    A: The TV Boy is a handheld-sized
    Atari 2600 (made by SystemA) with 127 built-in games that connects
    to your tv (it does not have its own screen). While it features
    a built-in Gameboy-like joypad and external 9-pin ports so one can connect
    one’s favorite controller, it does not, alas, have a cartridge slot. Inside
    the TV Boy is a jumper marked “NTSC/PAL,” so it appears that it will work
    on either type of TV.

    Q: What are the specs for the 2600?

    A: The information here is incomplete
    in some places, misleading in others, and possibly just plain wrong in
    still other places.

    CPU:            6507
    RAM:            128 Bytes, in VLSI
    ROM:            4K max
    Cpu Clock:      1.19 MHz
    Graphics Clock: 1.19 MHz
    Slot Config:    Rom access only
    CPU Avail:      less than 50%

    Notes: ROM specs are based on non-bank select scheme, the graphics clock
    is the master clock used to drive the video chips.

    Q: How large do 2600 games get?

    A: There are several 2600 games
    with 16K bytes (e.g. Road Runner). There are also games with 128 bytes
    of RAM on the cartridge (called the Atari Super Chip), such as Jr. Pac-Man.
    Supercharger games that do multiple loads may be even larger (which ones?;
    the Supercharger people should know.) Fatal Run is 32K. The 32-in-1 cart
    is 64K, 2K per game. The MegaBoy cart from Dynacom is also 64K, 16 banks
    of 4K.

    Q: Are there any published 2600 technical articles available?

    A: Andy Clayton was kind enough
    to type up Design
    Case History: the Atari Video Computer System
    from the March
    1983 IEEE Spectrum. It is quite an interesting read although it contains
    no code.

    Q: What is the 2600 Joystick Pinout information?


    Joystick Pinouts

    2600 pinouts:
    \ o5 o4 o3 o2 o1/
     \ o9 o8 o7 o6 /
    pin #  2600 control     7800 control
      1    WHT- Up          WHT- Up
      2    BLU- Down        BLU- Down
      3    GRN- Left        GRN- Left
      4    BRN- Right       BRN- Right
      5    unused           RED- Button (R)ight (-)
      6    ORG- Button      ORG- Both buttons (+)
      7    unused           unused
      8    BLK- Ground(-)   BLK- Ground(-)
      9    unused           YLW- Button (L)eft  (-)
    2600 control (button)
    pin 6 ORG(+) --------------()------------BLK(-) pin 8
    7800 control (buttons)
                                           /----------YLW(-) pin 9
                                Button L  /
                          /---------()---| YLW splits
                         /                \----/\/\/-----\
    pin 6 ORG(+) -------| ORG splits           520 ohm    |---BLK(-) pin 8
                         \                /----/\/\/-----/
                          \---------()---|     520 ohm
                               Button R   \ RED splits
                                           \----------RED(-) pin 5
    Note that some controllers have 620 ohm resistors rather than 520 ohm ones.

    2600 cartridge pinouts

    A standard 2600 cartridge contains the equivalent of a 2716 or 2732/2532
    with one notable exception: the chip select line is active high, not low.
    The high order address line of the 6507 (A12) is used as the chip enable.
    There was at least one company that used EPROMs with a 74LS04 inverter
    to compensate for this. Note that numbers indicate left to right numbering.

            Top Row                 Bottom Row
    Slot    2716    CPU             2716    CPU
    1       13      D3              1       A7
    2       14      D4              2       A6
    3       15      D5              3       A5
    4       16      D6              4       A4
    5       17      D7              5       A3
    6       *       A12             6       A2
    7       19      A10             7       A1
    8       NC      A11             8       A0
    9       22      A9              9       D0
    10      23      A8              10      D1
    11      24      +5V             11      D2
    12      12      Shield Ground   NC      Ground
        * to inverter and back to 18 for chip select
    (Looking at the bottom of the cartridge -- i.e. edge connectors first)
     D3   D4   D5   D6   D7   A12  A10  A11  A9   A8  +5V   SGND
    --1- --2- --3- --4- --5- --6- --7- --8- --9- -10- -11- -12-
     GND  D2   D1   D0   A0   A1   A2   A3   A4   A5   A6   A7
    Dx = Data line x
    Ax = Address line x
    +5V = +5 volts
    SGND = Shield Ground
    GND = Ground


    • On both cartridges that were opened, GND was also connected to SGND.
      Best to make sure that they are wired together.
    • A11 and A12 could be switched. On both the chips I’ve checked, A12
      was hardwired to +5 volts which leads me to believe that it is the highest
      address line. Since I believe that these chips are only 4Kx8 ROMs, this
      seems logical, since A12 would actually be just the chip enable for
      ROM (right?). Only the 2600 info tells differently, and it doesn’t give
      any connection for A11 on the EPROM, so I don’t trust it. Unfortunately,
      since the 2716 EPROM is used as an example, we won’t know without actually
      trying one, since the 2716 doesn’t really use A11 or A12 and either
      one could be used as a chip enable.
    lines           Memory
    used            Available       EPROM   Memory
    A11             2048            2716    2K
    A12             4096            2732    4K
    A13             8192            2764    8K  (needs support chips for banking)
    A13             8192        2 x 2732    8K  (most common of 8K config)
        |   2716   |
    A7  | 1     24 | VCC [+5 V]
    A6  | 2     23 | A8
    A5  | 3     22 | A9
    A4  | 4     21 | VPP [Doesn't matter probably.  +5V]
    A3  | 5     20 | !Output Enable (always on) [GND]
    A2  | 6     19 | A10
    A1  | 7     18 | !Chip Enable (make high bit) [inverted A12]
    A0  | 8     17 | D7
    D0  | 9     16 | D6
    D1  | 10    15 | D5
    D2  | 11    14 | D4
    GND | 12    13 | D3
        |   2732   |
    A7  | 1     24 | VCC [+5 V]
    A6  | 2     23 | A8
    A5  | 3     22 | A9
    A4  | 4     21 | A11
    A3  | 5     20 | !Output Enable (always on) [GND] / VPP
    A2  | 6     19 | A10
    A1  | 7     18 | !Chip Enable (make high bit) [inverted A12]
    A0  | 8     17 | D7
    D0  | 9     16 | D6
    D1  | 10    15 | D5
    D2  | 11    14 | D4
    GND | 12    13 | D3
        |   2764   |
    VPP | 1     28 | VCC [+5 V]
    A12 | 2     27 | !Program Strobe (no connection?) [+5V]
    A7  | 3     26 | No Connection
    A6  | 4     25 | A8
    A5  | 5     24 | A9
    A4  | 6     23 | A11
    A3  | 7     22 | !Output Enable (always on) [GND]
    A2  | 8     21 | A10
    A1  | 9     20 | !Chip Enable (always on) [GND]
    A0  | 10    19 | D7
    D0  | 11    18 | D6
    D1  | 12    17 | D5
    D2  | 13    16 | D4
    GND | 14    15 | D3
    VPP was also set at +5V for the 2764.

    Q: Power Supply Information?



    Input: 120VAC 60Hz
    Output: 9VDC 500mA
    Polarity: Center +, Outer –

    European 2600

      PART NO.:CO 18084-319
          AC/DC ADAPTOR
      INPUT: AC 240 V#50Hz 9W
       OUTPUT: DC 9V 500 mA
      BS415 [Polarity C+, O- diagram]
         XEP 80 OR SX212
          WB JUN-AUG 87

    Q: How do I build a composite/audio/chroma/luma output interface for the Atari 2600Jr/2600A?

    A: Moderators’ note: This entry
    has been left exactly as it was in the last version because of the copyright
    notice at the end. The author has been contacted, but he has not given
    his blessing to our edits as yet.

    [The following mod is for SOME Jr's.  Please see section end for
    2600A update.]
    File revision 1.1
    After finding my entertainment budget disappear (poor university
    student) I was forced to economize--I dusted off the Ole'2600.
    I figured I would hook it up to my computer monitor, but to my
    dismay there was no composite output on the beast (Atari).
    Determined to overcome, I quickly disassembled it. After some
    poking and prodding around I managed to locate the required
    Benefits:  No longer require a TV. You no longer require those
               god-awful switch boxes. No more interference patterns
               on the screen (from the RF cable being used as a bloody
               antenna). No longer requires the 100' hookup RF cable.
               Crisp clear audio etc;
    Drawbacks: No longer get to see sister trip in 100' RF cable. No
               longer get to fall asleep with psychedelic interference
               patterns on screen.
    Materials Required:
      Phillips screwdriver, a soldering iron, solder, a small piece of
      wire, 2 or 3 patch cables and a small pair of needle-nose pliers.
    * The following schematic is for the NEWER model which is sometimes
      referred to as the "Atari Junior".  The older model is much the
    1-Simply unplug everything from your console, turn it over and
      remove the 5 screws.
    2-Remove the top and bottom plastic case pieces. When removing the
      TOP piece carefully pull out the ribbon cable that connects it to
      the main board.
    3-You should now have the board (covered by a metal shield) in your
      hands. Turn it over, you will see little clasps on the edge of the
      shield that hold it in place. Straighten these with your pliers
      and you can then remove 2 LARGE shields (One on Bottom of unit,
      one on Top). The small shield remaining (On Top) covers the RF
    4-Orient the exposed board into the position that it would normally
      be in. ie: The way it is when you play (On/Off switch near Top
    5-Look in the LOWER RIGHTHAND AREA of the TOPSIDE (front) of the
      board. You will see a setup that resembles the schematic below.
    TOPSIDE OF THE BOARD,        |                  |
    LOWER RIGHTHAND CORNER       |O      RF         |
                                 |    MODULATOR     |
                                 |                  |
                                            ------ TP5 (Luma)
                                 _____      V      ___
                                |     | ||| o ||| | O |
                                |_____| RRR   RCR |___|
                                        |||   |||
                                          ^    ^
                                          |    |
                           R41 (Chroma) ---    --- C19 (Audio)
                           Gold/Red/Grey/Blue      Usually turquoise
                           Color-banded            colored
    NOTE: You can connect the Audio to EITHER side of the Capacitor,
          the best results are obtained by placing it on the BOTTOM
          of the Capacitor (as shown).
          The Chroma *MUST* be hooked up to the BOTTOM of the resistor
          (as shown).  It will NOT work if you hook it to the top of
          the resistor.
    To gain Chroma/Luma/Audio output you will need 3 RCA patch cables
    [the kind commonly used with stereos]. Simply solder the cables at
    the required points (Chroma/Luma/Audio) as shown. Remember to GROUND
    ALL cables! ie: solder the GROUND wire [the wire that wraps around
    the inner wire] to any point that the board shield connects to.
    To gain Composite/Audio output you need 2 RCA patch cables [the kind
    commonly used with stereos]. Here it gets a little different than
    above. Simply solder a "jumper" [a piece of wire] from R41 (Chroma)
    to TP5 (Luma), then connect a patch cord to TP5 [Presto! you now have
    composite]. Solder the remaining cable to C19 (Audio). Again, remember
    to GROUND all cables. Do *NOT* GROUND the jumper!
    Simply re-assemble the unit and you are done. You will find that it
    is easier to have the newly installed cables exit through the joystick
    port. Alternatively, you could cut a notch in the case for a separate
    exit. Having the cables exit through the RF output is not recommended.
    There will not be enough room (without pinching the cables) to hook up
    the RF cable. Adjust your brightness/contrast. Enjoy!
    If you ever wish to adjust your color (chroma) there is a "POT" that
    you can tweak. It can be found near the OFF/ON switch. It is the only
    pot on the left side of the board.
    I can not, and will not, be held responsible for any damages that you
    or your system incur.  This document is provided for informational
    purposes only.
    Send all Questions/Comments/Cartridges you are no longer using to:
    Thomas Clancy
    1 Hunt's Lane
    St. John's NF, Canada
    A1B 2L2
    (C)1993 Thomas Clancy
    This article is freely distributable so long as it is not modified.
    It must be distributed in it's entirety.

    chroma/luma output for 4 switch 2600

         TIA pin 2 -----Sync
         TIA pin 5 -----Lum 1                o 5V (TIA pin 20)
         TIA pin 7 -----Lum 2                |
         TIA pin 8 -----Lum 0                |  +
         R206(1K)/C208 Bottom ---Audio       |---|(----,
         C210/R210(6.8K) Top ----Color       |  100uF  |
                                             |         \/ GND (TIA pin 1)
            ,--------------------------------|                    10uf
            |    __________                  `------,---/\/\/---,--|(--,
            `---|1         |   CR1  750       1.6K  |    10     | +    |
                |         2|--|<]--/\/\/-,  ,-/\/\/-`           |      \/ GND
      TIA2<-----|3 CD4050  |   9.1K      |  |        ___/-------`        ..........
      TIA5<-----|5        4|---/\/\/-----|  |    Q1 /|/c\                .    RCA
      TIA7<-----|7         |   4.7K      |--|------(b|   )               .   Cables
      TIA8<-----|9        6|---/\/\/-----|  |       \|\e/          75    .       __
             ,--|14        |   18K       |  |           \-----,---/\/\/----Luma-O__
             |--|11      10|---/\/\/-----`  |  2K             |          .      |
             |--|8         |                `-/\/\/-,--/\/\/--`          .  GND \/
             |  |__________|           5v o         |    75              .
             |                            |     GND \/                   .
             \/ GND                Q2 ___/                               .
                             6.8K    /|/c\          75                   .       __
      Top of C210/R210<-----/\/\/---(b|   )   ,----/\/\/---------------->Chroma-O__
                                     \|\e/    |                          .      |
        CR1 - low power silicon          \----|     75                   .  GND \/
              (glass) diode (RS 276-1122)     `----/\/\/---,             .
        Q1,Q2 - 3904 or equiv. (RS 276-2016)               |             .
                                                           \/ GND        .
                                 1uF                                     .       __
      Bottom of R206/C208<-------|(-------------------------------------->Audio-O__
                                +                                        .      |
                                                                         .  GND \/

    The CD4050 is a video buffer. It provides a sharper signal than just
    picking the signals off of the TIA, which is an unbuffered and open collector.
    The unused buffer inputs are tied to ground to reduce noise (pins 14&11).
    On the outputs of the buffer, the 3 Luma pins and Sync are combined into
    what will become Luma. Each Luma signal is supposed to be twice as bright
    as the previous one, so the resistance on each Luma pin is roughly 1/2
    the previous one. If you cannot find the exact values, at least try to
    be within 10% or stack values to get close. The Sync signal is added in
    via a diode to protect the output of the buffer and is dropped slightly
    through a 750 ohm resistor.

    Next, the combined Luma signal is connect to 5v & ground through resistors
    to reference the voltage for the base of Q1, our Luma amplifier. Its output
    is set to 75 ohm impedance (75 ohms is best but 70-100 ohms will work
    in the place of the 75 ohm resistors. The closest Radio Shack has is a
    1/2 watt 82 ohm resistor 271-011 which works fine).

    The Chroma signal is picked off the board at the junction of C210 and
    R210. Looking at the board, R210 is the 4th component from the right in
    the bottom row of resistors/capacitors under the shield. It connects to
    C210 (5th component from the right) at the top of both components, and
    this is where to solder the wire for the Chroma circuit.

    The Chroma circuit is just a simpler version of the Luma amplifier.
    Again, the output is 75 ohm impedance.

    The Audio circuit is simply a capacitor to filter out the DC offset
    on the audio signal. Pick the audio signal off the board at the junction
    of R206 and C208. R206 is the 4th component from the right in the 2nd
    row of components at the bottom. Solder the Audio wire at the bottom of
    R206 and/or C208 (3rd component from the right).

    Be sure to solder the outer shield from the RCA cables to ground and
    connect the signal to the inner conductor. Also, do not disconnect any
    pins of TIA from the circuit (if the pins are lifted out of the socket
    or PCB, the open collector outputs will no longer function).

    I used a small piece of perfboard from Radio Shack and hot-glued it
    into the 2600 case and made a small hole in the RF shield to run the wires
    to the new board. I ran the RCA cables (Chroma, Luma, Audio) out the hole
    for the RF cable.

    I’d like to acknowledge Ben Poehland and Charles Cole whose Super Video
    upgrades are the basis for this project. When you complete this circuit,
    your 2600’s picture quality will be comparable to a Super Video upgraded
    Atari 8-bit.

    Q: How do I build a video driver for the 2600?

    A: Parts list:

    • T1 2SC1815
    • R1 2.7K
    • R2 150
    • R3 68
    • L1 180 uH
    • L2 2.7 uH
    • C1, C2 100 uF 6.3 V

    wire list:

    • R1:1 to Ground
    • R1:2 to Video In
    • R2:1 to Video In
    • R2:2 to T1 base
    • R3:1 to Ground
    • R3:2 to T1 emitter
    • L1:1 to +5V
    • L1:2 to T1 collector
    • C1:1 to Ground
    • C1:2 to T1 collector (positive lead of C1)
    • C2:1 to L2:1
    • C2:2 to T1 emitter (positive lead of C2)
    • L2:1 to C1:1
    • L2:2 to Video Out
                                      +5 Volts
                                      L1 (
                            R2      |/---+---+
       Video In -------+---^^^------| T1     |     + C2      L2
                       |            |\       |
                       |              >>-+---|-------| |----nnn----  Video Out
                       >                 |   |
                    R1 >                 >   _ +
                       >              R3 >   - C1
                       |                 >   |
                       |                 |   |
                       +-----------------+---+--- Ground

    This is a simple common emitter amplifier. It is a non-inverting current
    amplifier and serves here to allow the video signal from the game to drive
    a standard composite monitor with 75 ohm impedance.

    In order to prevent the audio from interfering with the video signal,
    the mixing oscillator must be disabled on the main circuit board. On a
    7800, remove the base lead of Q1. It is located near the RF modulator.

    The audio doesn’t need any extra buffering.

    Places to get signals:

    1. from RF modulator
       pin 3 is video
       pin 1 is ground
    2. from Expansion Interface on 7800
       pin 1 is ground
       pin 2 is +5V
       pin 3 is video
       pin 17 is audio  [note: this is wrong.  Both Ben Jirou and Mark Graybill
                         agree that one cannot get audio from the expansion
    3. from main circuit board
    on a 7800, video and ground are across C7; +5V and audio are across C4

    This circuit may not work or be required with all versions of the 2600.
    It is required for the 7800 and the Sears Video Arcade II version of the
    2600. It is probably not necessary for a 5200.

    Q: I hate the two mods above. Does anyone have anything better?

    A: Yes.

    Q: How do I convert Sega controllers to Atari pinout?

    A: [Note: Based on a non-random
    sample of size 2, it was found that unmodified Sega controllers
    work fine on the 2600/7800, with B acting as the single fire button. As
    an aside, Sega Master System controllers (model 3020) work too, with button
    1 as the fire button. Use the instructions below if you wish to have a
    truly 7800 compatible stick with 2 separate fire buttons.]

    [editor’s note: who is this talking?]
    First the Disclaimer. I am not responsible for:
    1. Any damage done to your Atari 7800 or Atari 2600.
    2. Any damage done to the Sega Genesis Controller.
    3. Any errors in these instructions.

    This design is free for you to make your own controllers or adaptors.
    If you make controllers or adaptors to sell to other people, I would like
    (no surprise here) a cut of the profits. The only other thing I ask is
    that if make your own, drop me an email so I get an idea of how many people
    are using my design.

    I’m not going to give step by step instructions. I’m going to assume
    that the reader has some basic knowledge of electronics and can figure
    out what to do with the schematics and info presented here. I will, however,
    answer questions if asked.

    This design works with the Atari 2600 as well as the Atari 7800. Also,
    any system that can use Atari 2600 joysticks, should be able to use this
    design. This design can be put inside a Sega Genesis controller or with
    the addition of two 9 pin connectors, it can be made into an adaptor.
    It works with any Sega Genesis controller including those with autofire.

    Parts List

    • 2 3906 PNP Transistor
    • 2 1K Resistor
    • 2 620 Ohms Resistor

    For Adaptor only

    • 1 9 pin Male Subminiature D connector
    • 1 9 pin Female Subminiature D Connector
    Sega B button --> Atari Left Button:
                             ____ Atari 6
                  1K      | /
    Sega 6   __/\/\/\/\___|V PNP
                          |\ 3906
                            |_______ Atari 9
    						< 620 Ohms
                          Atari 8
    Sega C button --> Atari Right Button:
                             ____ Atari 6
                  1K      | /
    Sega 9   __/\/\/\/\___|V PNP
                          |\ 3906
                            |_______ Atari 5
                            < 620 Ohms
                          Atari 8
    Sega 1 -------- Atari 1      (Up)
    Sega 2 -------- Atari 2      (Down)
    Sega 3 -------- Atari 3      (Left)
    Sega 4 -------- Atari 4      (Right)
    Sega 8 -------- Atari 8      (Ground)
    Sega 5 ___.
              |---- Atari 7      (+5V)
    Sega 7 ___|

    Pins listed as Sega refer to the 9 pin male connector that the Sega
    Controller plugs into. Pins listed as Atari refer to the 9 pin female
    connector that plugs in the Atari 7800.

    Q: How do I convert a Sega Master System lightgun to Atari pinout?

    A: The Aug 1988 (Vol 7, Num 4)
    Antic Magazine contained an article called First
    look: Inside the XE Game System: Hardware surprises revealed
    It described the conversion:

    To modify the Sega gun for the Atari, you’ll have to cut off the incompatible
    connector. The wires must be stripped back and soldered into an Atari
    joystick connector as follows:

            SEGA GUN                    ATARI JOYSTICK PORT
            Blue wire                   Pin 1 stick FWD
            Gray wire                   Pin 6 trigger
            Green wire                  Pin 7  +5 volts
            Black wire                  Pin 8 Ground

    Because of the close fitting connections for the XEGS ports, don’t wire
    in a DB9 female connector that has “ears”. Most joysticks don’t have wires
    for unused signals, so cutting up an old joystick cable may not work.
    Specifically, an Atari joystick does not need the +5 volts, so there isn’t
    likely to be a wire connected to Pin 7. However, you can find joystick
    extension cables at Radio Shack, which have all nine pins wired from male
    to female. Antic disclaims responsibility for any damages that might occur
    during improper implementation of this, or any, hardware modification
    project we publish.

    Once it’s all hooked up, you’ll notice that gun fires when you release
    the trigger, which is annoying. The Sega trigger wiring is the opposite
    of what the Atari light gun uses. To rewire the trigger switch, remove
    the five screws (one is under the Sega logo on the side). Find the trigger
    micro-switch with three connections. Wire to the normally closed contacts.

    Q: How do I convert an NES controller to Atari pinout?

    A: See the following link
    for step-by-step instructions. You will need a 2600 controller connector
    cable to make this work.

    There is also a mod
    to convert an NES controller to 7800 pinout.

    Q: Is there a general site that contains all this conversion stuff?

    A: Yes. Jay Tilton (
    maintains a page
    of various video, joystick and lightgun pinouts and conversions for the
    2600, 7800 and many, many others.

    Q: What is an Atari Game Recorder and how do I build one?

    A: An Atari Game Recorder is
    a device that copies carts to cassette tape and also admits the playing
    of games from tape. Instructions and schematics are in the following issues
    of Radio Electronics (it’s a three-part article):

    Dec 84 vol 55 no 12 p. 69-72.
    Jan 85 vol 56 no 1 p. 51-58.
    Feb 85 vol 56 no 2 p. 69-72.

    The article was written by Guy Vachon and David A. Chan. The construction
    of the AGR is not for the faint of heart, but if anyone does decide to
    construct an AGR, please mail Zube and provide details of how well it
    works and any problems encountered in its construction. BTW, the AGR as
    described in the article does not handle bankswitched carts.


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